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Neuro-Developmental Delay (NDD) refers to immaturity in the central nervous system. One of the main things we look for is the presence of retained infant (primitive) reflexes and underdeveloped adult (postural) reflexes.

In utero, babies develop a set of infant reflexes that help to facilitate the birth process and that help them to survive outside of the womb. These reflexes are also critical in helping them achieve developmental milestones. During the first year, these reflexes should systematically disappear and are eventually replaced with mature, adult reflexes. There are many things that can happen during pregnancy, birth, and the first year that interrupt this process and prevent proper development. The presence or absence of these reflexes provides us with reliable landmarks that show how the child's central nervous system is functioning. Often times, there is a mismatch between a child’s physical age and the maturity of their nervous system.

The impact of NDD varies from person to person. Symptoms will depend on which infant reflexes are present, which adult reflexes are absent, what other areas in the body are affected, and how the child has learned to cope.

  • Poor attention

  • Poor balance and coordination

  • Emotional instability

  • Poor hand-eye coordination

  • Difficulties in school

  • Anxiety

  • Hypersensitivity

  • Motion Sickness

  • Decreased immune system

  • Inflexibility



  • Medical problems

  • Sickness

  • Injury requiring bed rest

  • Extreme emotional stress

  • Alcohol or drug use



  • Difficulty with the birth process

  • Vacuum or forceps delivery

  • Cesarean birth

  • Birth trauma

  • Prematurity

  • Breech presentation

  • Loss of oxygen / Low heart tones

  • Very long or very fast labor

  • Skipping motor stages such as crawling

  • Ear nose and throat problems

  • Restricted movement

  • Negative reaction to medications or vaccines

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